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Welcome to Vegas Lawyer. This site is for people who were hurt in Nevada. Contact us for a free consultation. You may want to read the Nevada Personal Injury Law Introduction on our home page. Also, you can get an overview of the different types of claims such as Wrongful Death, Auto Accidents, Premises Liability, and Products Liability before you explore the Article below if you reached our site through this page.

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  • Increase In Aviation Accidents In 2003
  • Transportation Deaths Increase In 2002
  • Medical Oversight Of Non-Commercial Drivers
  • Epidemiology Of Traumatic Brain Injury


  • Epidemiology Of Traumatic Brain Injury

    The epidemiology of TBI, including incidence, prevalence, etiology, and natural history, can guide our estimates of the demand for and range of required TBI rehabilitation services. Data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored State surveillance projects report annual rates of TBI of 100 per 100,000 persons with 52,000 annual deaths. Prevalence estimates range from 2.5 million to 6.5 million individuals living with the consequences of TBI. These estimates, however, suffer from ascertainment bias since they are based exclusively on information about hospitalized patients and those who die before hospitalization.

    It is important to separately address mild, moderate, and severe TBI. Until data are available beyond those based on hospitalized patients, it will not be possible to understand and study the full spectrum of the disease. The recent State surveillance systems directed in part by CDC have adopted common data collection and reporting methods, which provide good epidemiologic data about persons with TBI who are hospitalized or die. Newer methodologies to assess the epidemiology of mild TBI that does not result in hospitalization should be developed and its incidence and prevalence rigorously studied.

    Existing data point to potential areas for prevention of TBI and design of rehabilitation programs. Males are more than twice as likely as females to experience TBI. The highest incidence is among persons 15 to 24 years of age and 75 years and older, with an additional less striking peak in incidence in children ages 5 and younger. Alcohol is reported to be associated with half of all TBI, either in the person causing the injury or in the person with the injury.

    Approximately 50 percent of TBIs are the result of motor vehicle, bicycle, or pedestrian-vehicle incidents. Safety belts, air bags, infant and child car seats, as well as changes in speed limits, road design, and traffic control have reduced motor vehicle-related deaths and TBI. Additional preventive measures to reduce TBI caused by alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents should be developed and assessed.

    Falls are the second most frequent cause of TBI among the frail elderly and the very young. Risk factors for falls among the elderly include alcohol, medication, and osteoporosis. Few preventive measures are in place for either the very young or the elderly; however, there have been some changes in the design of walkers, strollers, and shopping carts to help prevent falls among young children.

    Violence-related incidents account for approximately 20 percent of TBI. These incidents are almost equally divided into firearm and non-firearm assaults. The highest incidence for TBI due to firearms is among people ages 15 to 24. This is also a high-risk age for nonfirearm assaults. Programs to prevent street violence must be strengthened, especially through legislation to control use of handguns and to increase their safety.

    Assault is also a major cause of TBI in the very young. Although unintentional injuries account for 75 percent of TBI in this age group, child abuse is also an issue. Shaken baby syndrome results specifically in TBI and spinal cord injury. Domestic violence affects children and adults of both genders.

    Although sports- and recreation-related injuries account for 3 percent of hospitalized persons with TBI, approximately 90 percent of sports-related TBIs are mild and may go unreported, thus leading to the underestimate of the actual incidence rate of sports-related TBI. Sports-related TBI occurs most frequently among people ages 5 to 24 who have many decades of life ahead. Risk factors are poorly delineated. There is great promise for prevention of sports-related TBI.

    Risk factors for these causes of TBI are rarely studied, leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies and the association of those risk factors with etiologies and outcomes. In addition, etiologies and risk factors may affect the selection of rehabilitation strategies. For example, children with TBI secondary to child abuse or street violence may have limited options for community-based rehabilitation. Injuries related to alcohol or drug abuse often necessitate chemical dependency treatment in the rehabilitation process.

    These epidemiologic profiles indicate that TBI is extremely heterogeneous. This is apparent in the distribution of TBI by age, gender, ethnicity, severity, and cause. Multiple rehabilitation strategies to accommodate these complexities are needed.

    This information came from a
    National Institutes of Health online article.

    *** Any law, statute, regulation or other precedent is subject to change at any time ***

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