Medical Practice Specializations
Allergy and Immunology Work involves the evaluation, physical and laboratory diagnosis,
and management of disorders involving the immune system.
Anesthesiology Work involves providing pain relief and maintenance, or restoration, of a
stable condition during and immediately following an operation, an obstetric or diagnostic procedure. The
anesthesiologist assesses the risk of the patient undergoing surgery and optimizes the patient's condition
prior to, during, and after surgery. In addition to these management responsibilities, the anesthesiologist
provides medical management and consultation in pain management and critical care medicine.
Colon and Rectal Surgery Work involves diagnosing and treating various diseases of the
intestinal tract, colon, rectum, anal canal, and perianal area by medical and surgical means. This
specialist also deals with other organs and tissues (such as the liver, urinary, and female reproductive
system) involved with primary intestinal disease.
Dermatology Work involves diagnosing and treating pediatric and adult patients with
benign and malignant disorders of the skin, mouth, external genitalia, hair and nails, as well as a number
of sexually transmitted diseases.
Emergency Medicine Work involves making immediate decision and taking action necessary to
prevent the death or any further disability in the pre-hospital setting by directing emergency medical
technicians in the emergency room.
Family Practice Work involves diagnosing and treating a wide variety of ailments in
patients of all ages. The family physician is concerned with the total healthcare of the individual and the
family. The family physician receives a broad range of training that includes internal medicine,
pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and geriatrics. Special emphasis is placed on prevention
and the primary care of entire families, utilizing consultations and community resources when appropriate.
Internal Medicine Work involves providing long-term, comprehensive care of common and
complex illness of adolescents, adults, and the elderly. Internists are trained in the diagnosis and
treatment of cancer, infections, and diseases affecting the heart, blood, kidneys, joints, and digestive,
respiratory and vascular systems. They are also trained in the essentials of primary care internal medicine
which incorporates an understanding of disease prevention, wellness, substance abuse, mental health, and
effective treatment of common problems of the eyes, ears, skin, nervous system, and reproductive organs.
Medical Genetics Work involves performing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for
patients with genetically-linked diseases. This specialist uses modern cytogenetic, radiologic, and
biochemical testing to assist in specialized genetic counseling, implements needed therapeutic
interventions, and provide prevention through prenatal diagnosis.
Neurological Surgery Work involves providing the operative and non-operative management
(i.e., prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, critical care, and rehabilitation) of disorders of the
central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their supporting structures and vascular
supply; the evaluation and treatment of pathological processes which modify function or activity of the
nervous system; and the operative and nonoperative management of pain.
Neurology and Child Neurology Work involves the diagnosis and treatment of all types of
disease or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous
system, as well as the blood vessels that relate to these structures. A child neurologist has special
skills in the diagnosis and management of neurologic disorders of the neonatal period, infancy, early
childhood, and adolescence.
Nuclear Medicine Work involves the use of the properties of radioactive atoms and
molecules in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Radiation detection and imaging instrument systems are
used to detect disease as it changes the function and metabolism of normal cells, tissues, and organs.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Work involves the medical and surgical care of the female
reproductive system and associated disorders. This physician serves as a consultant to other physicians,
and as a primary physician for women.
Ophthalmology Work involves providing comprehensive eye and vision care. Ophthalmologists
are medically trained to diagnose, monitor, and medically or surgically treat all ocular and visual
disorders. This includes problems affecting the eye and its component structures, the eyelids, the orbit
and the visual pathways. In so doing, an ophthalmologist prescribes vision services, including glasses and
Orthopedic Surgery Work involves the preservation, investigation and restoration of the
form and function of the extremities, spine, and associated structures by medical, surgical, and physical
means. An orthopedic surgeon is involved with the care of patients whose musculoskeletal problems include
congenital deformities, trauma, infections, tumors, metabolic disturbances of the musculoskeletal system,
deformities, injuries, and degenerative diseases of the spine, hands, feet, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow
in children and adults.
Otolaryngology Work involves providing comprehensive medical and surgical care for
patients with diseases and disorders that affect the ears, nose, throat, the respiratory and upper
alimentary systems and related structures of the head and neck. An otolaryngologist diagnoses and provides
medical and/or surgical therapy or prevention of diseases, allergies, neoplasms, deformities, disorders
and/or injuries of the ears, nose, sinuses, throat, respiratory and upper alimentary systems, face, jaws,
and the other head and neck systems.
Pathology Work involves using information gathered from the microscopic examination of
tissue specimens, cells, and body fluids, and from clinical laboratory tests on body fluids and secretions
for the diagnosis, exclusions, and monitoring of disease. It deals with the causes and nature of disease
and contributes to the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment process through knowledge gained by the
laboratory application of the biologic, chemical, and physical sciences.
Pediatrics Work involves providing for the physical, emotional, and social health of
children from birth to young adulthood. Care encompasses a broad spectrum of health services ranging from
preventive healthcare to the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic diseases. A pediatrician deals
with biological, social, and environmental influences on the developing child, and with the impact of
disease and dysfunction on development.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Work involves diagnosing, evaluating, and treating
patients with physical disabilities. These disabilities may arise from conditions affecting the
musculoskeletal system such as neck and back pain, sports injuries, or other painful conditions affecting
the limbs, for example carpal tunnel syndrome. Alternatively, the disabilities may result from neurological
trauma or disease such as spinal cord injury, head injury, or stroke.
Plastic Surgery within the Head and Neck Work involves performing plastic and
reconstructive procedures within the head, face, neck and associated structures, including cutaneous head
and neck oncology and reconstruction, management of maxillofacial trauma, soft tissue repair and neural
Surgery of the Hand A plastic surgeon with additional training in the investigation,
preservation, and restoration by medical, surgical, and rehabilitative means, of all structures of the
upper extremity directly affecting the form and function of the hand and wrist.
Preventive Medicine Work involves focuses on the health of individuals in order to
protect, promote, and maintain their health and well-being, prevent disease, disability and premature
death. A preventive medicine physician may be a specialist in general preventive medicine, public health,
occupational medicine, or aerospace medicine.
Psychiatry Work involves specializing in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
mental, addictive, and emotional disorders such as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, mood
disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders, and
Radiology Work involves utilizing radiologic methodologies to diagnose and treat disease.
Physicians practicing in the field of radiology most often specialize in radiology, diagnostic radiology,
radiation oncology, or radiological physics.
- Diagnostic Radiology a radiologist who utilizes x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and
electromagnetic radiation to diagnose and treat disease.
- Radiation Oncology a radiologist who deals with the therapeutic applications of radiant
energy and its modifiers and the study and management of disease, especially malignant tumors.
- Radiological Physics a radiological physicist deals with the diagnostic and therapeutic
applications of roentgen rays, gamma rays from sealed sources, ultrasonic radiation, and radio-frequency
radiation, as well as the equipment associated with their production and use, including radiation
General Surgery Work involves managing a broad spectrum of surgical conditions affecting
almost any area of the body. The surgeon establishes the diagnosis and provides the preoperative,
operative, and postoperative care to surgical patients and is usually responsible for the comprehensive
management of the trauma victim and the critically ill surgical patient.
Thoracic Surgery Work involves the operative, perioperative care, and critical care of
patients with pathologic conditions within the chest. Included is the surgical care of coronary artery
disease, cancers of the lung, esophagus and chest wall, abnormalities of the trachea, abnormalities of the
great vessels and heart valves, congenital anomalies, tumors of the mediastinum, and diseases of the
Urology Work involves managing benign and malignant medical and surgical disorders of the
genitourinary system and the adrenal gland. This specialist has comprehensive knowledge of, and skills in,
endoscopic, percutaneous, and open surgery of congenital and acquired conditions of the urinary and
reproductive systems and their contiguous structures.