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  • Nutritional Disorders












  • Nutritional Disorders

    Nutrition is a process by which animals and plants are able to absorb nutrients into their tissue. Animals, including humans, undertake a process to digestion to gain these necessary nutrients. Nutrition is needed for survival, although sensible nutrition and a balanced diet will improve health and is important in fitness and weight loss.

    Nutritional disorders include the mental and physical roles that contribute to the insufficient or excess intake of nutrients by the body.

    Nutritional deficiencies, particularly common in Third World countries, constitute common examples of environmental influences on health. These can result in a variety of associated metabolic disorders. On the other hand, nutritional deficiencies in the First World are more commonly a result of psychological eating disorders.

    On the other end of the spectrum, excessive eating can also lead to a wide variety of diseases. Several studies have shown a strong correlation between obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and other complications. Obesity has become a high profile problem in the United States with about 40% of the population now considered obese. Some governments have even considered compensating for gastric bypass surgery as a preventive measure from even higher health care costs due to future health problems.

    Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies

    Vitamins and minerals are chemical substances that participate in the proper function of many of the body's enzymes. A deficiency in any of these substances can cause a broad spectrum of diseases.

    Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    One of the most common diseases associated with a vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia. This vitamin deficiency can arise due to malnutrition or the inability of the body to absorb the vitamin. Treatment often includes relatively high doses of vitamin B12 to supplement or force vitamin absorption into the body.

    Obesity

    A state of obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 30. Discounting abnormal muscle mass which may skew the calculations, the BMI is considered a relatively reliable indicator of weight problems.

    Obesity has become a greater problem worldwide, but the problem is particularly evident in the United States where the number of obese adults have dramatically increased in the past few years. Pediatricians are also aware of the rise in the number of obese children. Moreover, studies have demonstrated a stronger chance of developing obesity in adulthood if the person was obese as a child.

    The main issue with obesity is the diversity of associated diseases. Diabetes, atherosclerosis, heart attacks, strokes, joint problems are just a few of the many correlated consequences of obesity. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by cancer, comprise the number one killer of people in the United States.

    Body Mass Index (BMI)

    The body mass index (BMI) is the current measurement used to classify weight categories. The BMI is equal to the person's weight in kilograms (2.2 pounds) divided by the height in squared meters (1 meter = 3.3 feet). BMI = kg / m2.

    A person with a BMI below 20 is considered underweight. A BMI of 20 to 25 is considered normal. A BMI of 25 to 30 is pre-obese, and a person with a BMI of 30 or more is obese.



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